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【书籍搬运】History of Lock Picking 撬锁的历史

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英文书名:History of Lock Picking
原文出处:http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Oblivion:History_of_Lock_Picking
翻译:lttb

在赛瑞迪尔,现代锁有着一段令人着迷的历史。自房屋面世以来,限制外人的进入就成为了当务之急。最早的安全系统是在门上加一根横杠。它的缺陷是显而易见的:只有主人在家时才派得上用场。

史上记载的第一个锁是安维尔城堡精巧的“断臂器”。当时的伯爵在大门一侧安置了5根滑杆,然后在门上开一个孔,使孔正好位于滑杆上方,从而他在外面可以把手伸进门里操纵5根滑杆。这5根杆中,只有一根控制门的开闭。其它4根连接着一个机关,一旦触动,就会释放一个锤子砸在开门者的手臂上。因此,只有知道哪根滑杆控制开闭,才能安全地把门打开。

在此后的一百多年里,滑杆和惩罚性的陷阱主宰了锁的设计。直到著名的矮人“聪显特”发明了插销式锁。他的第一个样品有3根插销。开锁时,把钥匙插进锁里转动4次,每次转动依赖于某根插销处于正确的位置。显然,插销可以反复使用。

人们花了整整65年的时间,才发明了一个方法,可以不用钥匙就打开插销式锁,而且不会损坏锁本身。倒不是因为这个问题有多困难,而是因为除了贵族外,没有人用得起聪显特的锁。终于,一位名叫奥伦萨尔的勤勉的铁匠,决定批量制造这种锁的一个普通版本,使得它们的价格可以为大众所接受。一时间,每家店铺都有了锁。于是,撬锁活动就有了真正的意义。各式撬锁工具和撬锁事件很快就出现了。而奥伦萨尔则因为发明出越来越复杂的锁,发了大财。

今天的锁已经进化为复杂的机械。它们普遍使用由弹簧控制的插销。钥匙必须精确地推动每一根金属插销才能把锁打开。钥匙上的任何缺陷、任何粗糙的复制品,以及任何拙劣的撬锁尝试,都会释放弹簧的张力,使得插销卡住钥匙或撬锁工具,甚至损坏它们。

在一把锁里使用多重插销可以提供更好的安全性。多重插销锁比一般的锁更为精致,更难制造,也更昂贵。但面对撬锁者,它们提供了更可靠的保障。特别地,只要一根插销被不正确地推动,多重插销锁的其它插销就会重排。如果一个盗贼在处理一个5插销锁的最后一根插销时犯了个小错,他就不得不从头再来。大多数不太贵的锁都只有一到两个插销。5插销锁是制锁匠们的最高成就,也是潜在的撬锁者们最大的挑战。

撬开一把现代锁堪称一门艺术。撬棍是一根细细的金属棒,末端安着一个小齿,用来把插销压进锁的机械结构里。盗贼们依靠经验和技巧来操纵每个插销,以判断出必须对弹簧施加多大的力才能使插销固定在正确的位置。通过精细地推放插销,一个大师级盗贼可以判断出固定插销的精确动作。

盗贼新手在学习职业技术时总要弄坏很多撬棍。只有经过长时间的练习,他才能在猜测固定插销的力度和时机方面有所进步。因此,盗贼新手倾向于随身携带很多撬棍,而大师们则只需寥寥数根。

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History of Lock Picking
Chronicles the development of modern locks and lockpicking

The modern lock has a fascinating history in Cyrodiil. The need to restrict access to one's home has been a problem since homes were first built. The very first security system was a simple bar across the door. This has the obvious shortcoming of only being functional when the owner is at home.
The first recorded instance of a lock is the ingenious armbreaker of Castle Anvil. The count of the day put five slide bars on the side of the door. A hole in the door just above them allowed him to reach in and manipulate any of these bars. Only one of the bars truly locked or unlocked the door. The other four released the clasp on a hammer that fell down on the person's arm. Only by knowing which sliding bar was the true lock could one safely open the door.
For over a hundred years, the state of the art in locks was defined by sliding bars and punished traps. Then the famous dwarf Mzunchend invented the pin lock. The first example had three pins. The key was turned in the lock four times, each turn depending on a different pin being in position. Obviously a pin could be used more than once.
It was 65 years before anyone devised a method to open a pin-based lock without the key and without damaging the lock. It wasn't that the problem was so difficult. It was that nobody other than royalty could afford Mzunchend's locks. An enterprising blacksmith named Orenthal decided to mass-produce a common form of the lock at a reasonable price. Suddenly every shop had a lock. Now there was a reason to subvert the locks. It wasn't long before lockpicks and lockpicking appeared. Orenthal became quite wealthly [sic] inventing more and more sophisticated locks.
Today's locks are sophisticated mechanisms with spring-loaded pins. Each metal pin must be pushed up by the key precisely to open the lock. Any imprecision in the key, any poorly made copy, or any clumsy attempt at lockpicking releases the spring tension, causing the pin to clamp down upon or even break the key or lockpick.
Locks are made more secure by using multiple pins in the lock. Multiple-pin locks are more delicate and difficult to make, and more expensive, but provide a greaterreliablity [sic] against tampering. Multiple-pin locks have the further virtue of resetting all pins when any single pin is tampered with. A single mistake with the fifth pin of a five-pin lock requires a thief to reset all five pins again. Most affordable locks are one-pin or two-pin locks. The five-pin lock is the highest achievement of the lockmaker's craft, and the greatest challenge to a would-be intruder.
Picking the modern lock is an art form. A lockpick is a thin metal bar with a small tooth on the end. The tooth is used to press the pin up into the lock mechanism. The thief uses skill and experience to manipulate each pin in turn to determine the exact tension necessary to set the spring-loaded pin at its catchpoint. With a subtle pressing and lofting of the pin, the master thief determines the exact motion required to set it.
A novice thief breaks many picks while learning his trade. Only with time and practice will he get better at guessing the tension and timing necessary to set a pin. As a result, novice thieves tend to carry a great many lockpicks, while the masters only need to carry a few.

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